One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement of relevant radiation quantities especially doses. This book is divided into two parts. The first contains up-to-date definitions of the most significant radiation quantities including their interpretation. In the second part, the exposures of both individuals and population at large to various types of natural and man-made sources are compared and discussed. The concept of quantities and units as well as analysis of exposure due to various sources in our environment is based on the latest, highly regarded authentic sources such as ICRU, ICRP, IAEA and particularly UNSCEAR reports and recommendations. The material reflects the latest review of the current terminology in radiation protection dosimetry and the contemporary assessment of radiation exposures of the population, radiation workers and patients.